ISSN 2617-8001 (Print), ISSN 2664-5297 (Online)
THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FATTY OIL FROM CARTHAMUS LANATUS (L.) BOISS. SEEDS
Shahla A. Gasimova

This article presents the physicochemical properties, composition and content of seed oil, fatty acids of Carthamus lanatus (L.) Boiss. (Asteraceae Bercht. et J. Presl). This species is distributed in almost all botanical and geographical regions of Azerbaijan, growing from lowland to the lower mountain belt in meadows, summer pastures, neglected places, along roads and in gardens. The seeds of the plant were Shamakhi region. The qualitative composition and quantitative determination of fatty acid methyl esters were determined on an HP 6890 capilar column Agilent 112-88A7 series chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.  As a result of study of the chemical composition of fatty oil from the seeds of Carthamus lanatus by gas-liquid chromatography it was revealed that it contains eight fatty acids and trans-isomers. The main part of fatty acids is linoleic (75.2%) and oleic acid (13.3%). The rest accounted for palmitic (6.6%), stearic (3.5%), linolenic (0.1%), eicosinic (0.1%), palmitoleic (0.1), myristic (0, 1%) acids and trans-isomers (0.14%). It was determined that fatty oil has the following indicators: the saponification number is 192.1, the amount of free fatty acids - 0.8%, the peroxide number - 2.1, the iodine number - 142.5, the weight fraction of phosphorus-containing substances - 3.0 mg / kg. The high content of linoleic oil in the studied oil and a significant content of oleic acids, which are ω-6 and ω-3 unlimiting fatty acids, from a dietary point of view characterizes seed oil of C. lanatus as a valuable product. Considering the large natural reserves of C. lanatus in the flora of Azerbaijan, it can be confirmed that C. lanatus has quite good prospects for use as a medicinal, food and technical plant. 

Keywords: Asteraceae,  fatty oil plant, gas-liquid chromatography, fatty acids.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/plantfungalres.43
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