The nonuniformity of the environmental conditions of the Caspian coast and the anthropogenic factors lead to an uneven distribution of various types of vegetation. Desert vegetation is one of the most widely represented and most vulnerable types in this region. In this regard, the current state of annual saltwort of coastal desert phytocenoses has been studied. A comparative analysis of modern plant units of the annual saltwort desert with plant units of previous years have been carried out. New plant units – annual saltwort formation Salsoleta tragosae and three associations – S. kali subsp. tragus+Convolvolus persicus, S. kali subsp. tragus+Suaeda confusa, S. kali subsp. tragus+Limonium meyeri have been found in the coast of the Azerbaijani part of the Caspian Sea. An inventory of the species composition of annual saltwort communities has been carried out, dominant species have been identified. Based on the collected material, an analysis of α and β diversity has been conducted.