Species of the genus Pyrus distributed in Europe include P. communis L., P. pyraster, P. nivalis Jacq., and P. cordata Desv. subsp. cordata. Pyrus pyraster is occasionally regarded as a variety or subspecies of P. communis. However, a molecular study has recently demonstrated that P. communis is more closely related to P. caucasica and P. nivalis, rather than to P. pyraster. In this study, Pyrus pyraster is reported from Turkey for the first time. Pyrus vallis-demonis, a species recently described from Italy, is here reduced to a synonym of Pyrus pashia based on morphology. Also, we discuss seed ornamentation of Pyrus pashia and a closely related taxon, P. cordata subsp. boissieriana, to achieve a better understanding of taxonomy in the group.